Titration is the process of analyzing the concentration of an unknown solution by allowing a chemical reaction occur at the addition of a solution of a known concentration. We may analyze the concentration of an unknown acid by adding a known amount of base.
By means of titration of an acid or base, we can analyze the following data:
1. The concentration of an acid or base (based on that we know if an unknown acid is monoprotic, diprotic or, triprotic).
2. pKa of the acid or base (may be more difficult for the polyprotic acids).
A redox titration can be performed when they involve metal ions that provide a color to the solution. Using redox titration, we can determine the concentration of a particular chemical compound when we know the reaction that takes place, and the equivalence point is reached when the color of the solution changes.
What is needed at a titration
1. An Erlenmeyer flask in which the solution to be analyzed (titrand) should be in.
2. A burette with a solution of known concentration (titrant) is available. The burette must be graded to measure the amount of titrant has been added.
3. A stand and a clamp to hold the burette.
4. An indicator of the equivalence point. At an acid-base titration, this may be a suitable pH indicator, or preferably a pH meter.
Lock the burette in the clamp above the Erlenmeyer flask containing the solution of unknown concentration. Fill the burette with the titrant, and let it slowly drip down in the titrand while stirring. When the titration is complete at the equivalence point (as indicated in one way or another depending on your titration type), make a note of the consumption of titrant.
Get detailed information on the theory of titration, and how to perform the specific titrations, as well as information on the equivalence point and half-equivalence-point is found in the menu on the left.